EXHIBITING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND ACTIVEIMMUNITY IMPLICATION
In April 30, 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) officially announced the end of the antibiotic era, at least of those existing at that time, following to make an exceptional effort to find and use effective potentiation of antibiotics and the use of new antimicrobial medicines.
At this time (2019) WHO already warns if no action is taken, drug-resistant diseases could cause 10 million deaths each year by 2050 and damage to the economy as catastrophic as the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. Currently, at least 700,000 people die each year due to drug-resistant diseases, including 230,000 people who die from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. More and more common diseases, including respiratory tract infections, sexually transmitted infections and urinary tract infections, are untreatable; lifesaving medical procedures are becoming much riskier, and our food systems are increasingly precarious. The world is already feeling the economic and health consequences as crucial medicines become ineffective. Without investment from countries in all income brackets, future generations will face the disastrous impacts of uncontrolled antimicrobial resistance.1
In countries where resistance can be measured accurately, the OECD predicts that between 2015 and 2050 around 2.4 million people could die in Europe, North America and Australia without a sustained effort to contain antimicrobial resistance. 1
Since the announcement of WHO (2014), except for using antibiotics (in higher doses, taking the risk of excessive and unnecessary administration), there is no other option to provide, from the scientific and practical point of view, any possibility of preventing and treating antibiotic resistance. At the same time, it has been shown that bacteria not only have found solutions for counteracting the activity of antibiotics, but also have developed their own informational system which allows them to transmit the genetic information for antibiotic resistance from their own DNA to the other native bacteria of the same species or not, present in their natural environment.
If the emergence of superbugs with a high degree of pathogenicity (gonorrhea) has created emotions in the medical world, the presence of an impressively large number of bacterial strains resistant to all antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal agents present on the medical market can be considered to be of major importance for pathology as well as for the programs of prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance, as antimicrobials are becoming less effective.
Serious level of resistance has been recorded, as in some countries common diseases started to become untreatable and medical procedures, including those meant to save lives (surgery, some resuscitation and emergency procedures, treatments depending on antimicrobials), are endangered by the risk of contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria.
Antimicrobial resistance was reported in various countries irrespective the economic level, the main issues being that ordinary diseases became untreatable and surgery procedures risky to perform.
It has been scientifically proven that antimicrobial resistance is naturally developed as the response of microbes to an aggressive factor. Germs have the ability to defeat the drug mechanism designed exactly to kill them.
In addition, microbes adapt by natural selection and outsmart the new generation of antibiotics.
Those mentioned above plus the weak regulations including over-the-counter sales, the irresponsible attitude of individuals and companies regarding antimicrobial application and the consistent use of adulterated antimicrobials products have all determined the current situation in which antimicrobial resistance has reached alarming levels, as microbes are impervious to nearly all drugs available.
The misuse and widely overuse of antimicrobials in health system, intensive agriculture, animal farming in CAFO and food industry, inflicted the spread of antimicrobial-resistant diseases all over the world, threatening life in all its forms (humans, plants, terrestrial and aquatic animals), having an irreversible impact in economics, agriculture, food industry and as such posing the risk of another global crisis, that may end by reversing years of human progress in the fields mentioned above.
Regarding the healthcare systems, every passing year, more people are affected by drug-resistant infections, many of them die due to infections or to ailments complicated by antimicrobial-resistant infections.
In fact, if you have a weakened immune system, simply staying in a hospital is a risk condition for MRSA, similar to having any type of invasive medical device, such as a catheter, feeding tube, or being on dialysis.
The usage of antimicrobials in agriculture is highly overlooked. Considering that most of antibiotic quantity produced is used in agriculture, the dimension of the disaster is increasing. The animals grown within intensive farming procedures (CAFO) are fed with antibiotics at low doses to prevent diseases and promote their development. The antibiotics are further transferred to humans by meat and by-products and to the soil (manure) as fertilizer, thus maintaining antibiotic resistance in humans and soil.
As such the impact of antimicrobial resistance extends to the environment and ecosystems that are consistently affected by the imbalance of their natural and normal status quo, in certain situations being favored by the proliferation of parasitic and pathogenic species.
A soil in which the healthy bacteria are affected (quantitatively or qualitatively) becomes an injured soil, which no longer produces the biological material necessary for the healthy growth of the plants, animals and humans.
To overcome the situation and not risk losing their business, farmers resort to the cheapest and most convenient solution: the use of next-generation antibiotics, which they apply both in soil and animals’ treatment, thus the spiral of antimicrobial resistance is maintained and amplified.
It may be concluded that the intensive agriculture using antibiotics along with the overuse of antibiotics in medicine is the causing factor behind the development of antibiotic resistance in a wide range of bacteria that affect humans, plants and animals causing them diseases (including MRSA).
Besides the fact that MRSA is difficult to treat (because antibiotics are not efficient), it can easily progress from a superficial skin infection to a life-threatening infection.
No one is exempted by the risk of resistant infections but some people are at a higher risk: the children and the elderly; people with chronic disease; people living in crowded conditions (prison, hospitals, military); constant use of antibiotic; people with weakened immune system; people working in health care settings; others.
In economy the uncontrolled antimicrobial resistance has already serious impacts especially in the field that caused this situation:
-healthcare that lose the possibility to treat infection;
-food production for humans and animals that is endangered, with similar consequences in all activities related, such as commerce, food industry
-veterinary and agriculture.
The impact of antimicrobial resistance is fueled by the climate change (especially increasing the average temperature).
Washington Post2 released on November 13th, 2019 is stating that CDC has selected five most dangerous germs, classified as the most urgent threat. The first three are carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Clostridium difficile and drug-resistant gonorrhea. Each of these are resistant to all antibiotics, and statistics show they kill up to 50% of peoples that become septic.
“More than 1 million people are infected with gonorrhea around the world every day. Antibiotic resistance causes people to be sick longer and increases the risk of death.”3
These bacteria have the capability to transfer their resistance ability to related bacteria. In this way, the number and species of bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant is constantly increasing.
The other two new pathogens added to the list are:
-a yeast called Candida auris, which the CDC refers to as an “emerging fungus that presents a serious global health threat.”
– a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter bacteria, which the CDC reports “is resistant to nearly all antibiotics”. The updated CDC report presents a classification of pathogens in which they placed 18 germs with the potential to spread resistance.
The experts have warned since decades about the abilities of bacteria to evolve and mutate, their capability to fight off different types of antibiotics.
As more antibiotics are used in agriculture and health care, they will become less effective in the future.
Like this the spread of resistant pathogens become one of the world’s most urgent problem.
To counteract this cycle, increased effort (financial and human) has to be allocated to stimulate innovation for the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs, vaccines, therapies and alternative procedures to mitigate the economic and human impact of antimicrobial resistance.
ACTIVEIMMUNITY DIRECT IMPLICATION
Since 1950 the scientific community has investigated the possible benefits of proteins isolated from cow milk and eggs from immunized hen. The repeated immunization was made against one or more antigens (specifically against human pathogens). Such proteins had remarkable antimicrobial properties and were capable to modulate the body physiological functions.
Hens condense their antibodies and immune cofactors into eggs, for the sustenance and protection of their offspring, like this conferring general passive immunity in the form of antibodies against pathogens present in their environment.
The transfer of antibodies and immune cofactors from hen’s serum to egg yolk to its offspring corresponds to the transfer of immunoglobulin G across the placenta to fetus and further transfer of antibodies through milk, in case of mammals.
These eggs represent a reliable source of biologically active proteins, beneficial for human health. Eggs especially contain higher levels of antibody per specific quantity than milk, as eggs represent the sole opportunity for hens to pass immune protection to offspring, compared to mammals that have further months to transfer immune factors through their milk.
These functional proteins extracted from eggs and their role in human health and disease control, including antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, immune-modulatory4 and support for immune system homeostasis is a subject of international research.
Over the last few years the scientific interest in processing and separating the bioactive proteins significantly increased due to the fact that laboratory tests confirmed their antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and mineral binding properties.
As such, egg derived bioactive proteins offer much promise in improving the human health, while providing a valuable resource for food industry to prepare value-added products.
In this context, ACTIVEIMMUNITY was founded in 2017 by a Group of visionary Investors together with Phd.MVD Ionel-Victor Patrascu – a world-renowned specialist, whose decades of research in virology and immunology, set the base of a research group capable to extend the research on functional proteins extracted from eggs, to onset the production of such proteins, and realize products purposed to sustain prophylaxis, to support the healing effort in disease and to provide complementary aid in various critical health problems (including MRSA).
ACTIVEIMMUNITY’s main target is to valorise the immense potential of biologically active proteins sourced in chicken eggs for human health, for diseases control and for animal health.
ACTIVEIMMUNITY is focused on the research and innovation for the extraction of egg valuable proteins: immunoglobulin Y, holo-ovotransferrin, lysozyme and ovomucin. Those proteins are notorious in the scientific community due to their remarkable properties and at present the doors are still open to new ideas and future development (human health, food industry, cosmetics and so on).
Detailed information on ACTIVEIMMUNITY Chicken Immunological Active Proteins – products, their mechanism of action and effects are indicated on specific materials that can be found on ACTIVEIMMUNITY site.
1 World Health Organization report on antibiotics-2019
2 Washington Post, November 13, 2019, Para 6, then 1;
3 WHO’s report on antibiotic resistance-Japan, 2014
4 MINE Y., and KOVACS-NOLAN J (2006) New insights in biologically active proteins and peptides derived from hen egg, World’s Poultry Science Journal